Structure, function and reaction kinetics of macromolecules in chemical biology*

Ultrafast fluorescence upconversion spectroscopy system
Fluorescence Upconversion Spectroscopy

In terms of temporal resolution, measurement sensitivity and accuracy, fluorescence upconversion is ultimately the most competitive technology.
The technique has been used to study the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared spectral regions and has been used to study many different phenomena such as solvation kinetics, intramolecular coherence vibrations, ultrafast photoisomerization reaction kinetics, charge transfer reactions, fluorescence properties of DNA nucleosides and nucleotides, solvation reactions at multiple sites in globular proteins, as well as water kinetics in biological recognition, and condensed matter.

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