Micro and Nano Processing | Thin Film Deposition, Lithography and Etching Overview

Nanofabrication is divided into three different areas: thin film, photolithography and etching.

Thin films, physical vapor deposition methods such as vapor deposition; sputtering; and pulsed laser and chemical vapor deposition are reviewed for low-pressure CVD, plasma-enhanced CVD, and atomic layer deposition (CVD).

Lithography, first discussing the principles of contact-mask lithography, then ultraviolet (UV) projection lithography, and finally more advanced systems for integrated circuit fabrication, such as deep-UV 193 nm and immersion lithography systems. Resolution enhancement techniques such as double patterning and self-aligning patterning are briefly reviewed. Non-optical lithography, such as electron beam lithography, focused ion beam lithography, and nanoimprint lithography, are also discussed.

Etching, topics include techniques used in wet chemical etching, plasma etching and deep silicon etching.

Thin Film Deposition Technology Summary

  Evaporation Sputtering PLD LPCVD Chemical Vapor Deposition Atomic layer deposition MOCVD MBE
Substrate temperature Large Scale Large Scale Large Scale High moderate Large Scale High Large Scale
Deposition energy Low High High Surface reaction Surface reaction Surface reaction Surface reaction Surface reaction
Pressure Vacuum or reaction gas Mild. Primarily argon, but can also include reactive gases Large Scale moderate moderate Large Scale moderate Vacuum
Step Coverage Highly oriented Oriented Oriented conformal A little direction Highly conformal Extent Extent
Defect Density High moderate moderate Very low Low Very low Low Very low
Uniformity High High less favourable High High High High High
Deposition rate Quick Quick slow Quickly Quickly Slow down moderate Slow down
Commonly used materials Most metals, single elements and stable dielectrics, such as Au, Ag, Cu, Si, SiO2, MgF2, etc. Same material as evaporation, plus additional metals and dielectrics such as W, VO2, etc. YBCO, PZT, ferroelectric materials and other complex compounds Si3N4, SiO2 Si3N4, SiO2, polycrystalline silicon Al2O3, HfO2, SiO2 and some metals Compound Semiconductor GaAs, InP, AlGaAs Compound semiconductors-GaAs, InP, AlGaAs
Common Applications Optical and electronic films, other general purpose applications Optical and electronic films, other general purpose applications Currently used mainly for exploration Masks and MEMS Electrical insulation, passivation, masking Gate dielectric, passivation Optoelectronic device manufacturing Epitaxy and Optoelectronics Research and Development
Lithography Summary
Methods Wave length About half-pitch Depth of Focus Common Applications
Contact lithography 365 nm (Hg) 500 nm   Research and Development
Projection lithography 365 nm (Hg) 350 nm   R&D and small production
Projection lithography 193 nm (ArF) 75 nm   Production System
Projection immersion lithography 193 nm (ArF) 35nm   Production System
Projection lithography with immersion and resolution enhancement 193 nm (ArF) 20nm   Production System
EUV lithography 13.5 nm 5nm   Production systems still being developed
Laser Interference Lithography 325 nm (HeCd), 266 nm (YAG), 248 nm (KrF), 193 nm (ArF), etc. 100e500 nm Infinite Periodic structures such as grids
EBL 0.01 nm (electron beam) 5nm Large R&D lab and manufacturing templates for production systems
FIB lithography Gallium ion 10nm Large Mask repair, chip repair, R&D
NIL N/A N/A N/A R&D with potential for commercial use

The Half-pitch values given here are the actual values of these systems, not their theoretical limits.

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